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Extension agrometeorology

Last modified January 09, 2012 11:00

EXTENSION AGROMETEOROLOGY (Prof. C.J. Stigter). Part of a course for extension intermediaries in Iran.


This course was developed in Shiraz, Iran, in November/December 2011. It was given in its first try out in Qazvin, Iran, from 7 till 10 December as part of a programme of “strategic management and smart agriculture” within some provincial Ministries of Agriculture of Iran.Part of a course for extension intermediaries in Iran

Other parts in this educational commitment, lectured by others, deal with data collection, handling and quality control, including remote sensing and GPS components, and with already developed agrometeorological products in the fields of among others frost protection, coping with drought and water management, integrated pest management and soil conservation.

What we developed in extension agrometeorology has four parts that each were presented, with alternate translation, in about two to three hours, including questions:

I. Agrometeorology and extension agrometeorology: definitions, consequences and use;

II. Pitfalls in extension agrometeorology: Examples from drought, wind erosion
and desertification warnings and combating;

III. Reaching farmers: agrometeorological services in a “farmers first paradigm” and attitudes towards clients;

IV. Institutionalization of educational extension commitments: Science/Climate Field Shops and Climate Field Classes/Schools for the establishment of agroclimatic services using locally developed agrometeorological products.

I used material from my three existing Roving Seminars

- Agrometeorological services, theory and practice (latest version 2008);

- Agrometeorology and sustainable development (latest version 2009);

- Reaching farmers in a changing climate (latest version 2010).

I also used material from lectures written for meetings in Iran in January 2011 and in November/December 2011 and work on extension agrometeorology prepared for use in Ghana in 2012 and for a Chapter in a book on “Sustainable Development in Agriculture”.


Part of a course for extension intermediaries in IranExtension agrometeorology may be defined as that agrometeorology that attends to (i) local suffering from weather and climate and persistent ways to diminish it and (ii) windows of opportunity that (micro)climate offers “on farm”. For both approaches, a combination of local innovations and scientific understanding must be used, in a participatory approach. This should lead to the establishment of agrometeorological services by and with farmers and means first and foremost field work with farmers. To carry it out, we will have to make use of new educational commitments as “Climate Field Shops”, Climate Field Schools/Classes and Agrometeorological Extension Training. These all ask for institutionalization of scientists listening to farmers and training and working with extension agents. To presently remain on the road to sustainable agriculture, in agricultural and social sciences we should, among others, care for policies of establishing and supporting a rural response to climate change and of institutionalization of that response. In the mentioned new educational commitments we should discuss with farmers the local consequences of climate change that they experience. Extension agrometeorology should join hands with other extension fields to mobilize production and protection forces in a multi-functional agricultural production. Trees outside forests should play an important role in such production and protection functions where they can be well established.


  • Stigter CJ (1999) The future of agrometeorology: perspectives in science and services. WMO-Bulletin 48:353-359
  • Stigter CJ (2007a) From basic agrometeorological science to agrometeorological services and information for agricultural decision makers: a simple conceptual and diagnostic framework. A Guest Editorial. Agric For Meteorol 142:91-95
  • Stigter CJ (Ed., 2007b) Guidelines for Agricultural Meteorological Practices (GAMP), 3rd Edition of WMO 134, WMO/CAgM, available from the INSAM website.
  • Stigter CJ (2008a) Agrometeorology from science to extension: assessment of needs and provision of services. Invited lecture at the 50th anniversary of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing. Agric Ecosyst Environ 126:153-157
  • Stigter K (2008b) Coping with climate risks in agriculture needs farmer oriented research and extension policies. Scientia Agricola (Piracicaba, Brazil), 65 (special issue) [online]: pp. 108-115.
  • Stigter CJ (2009) Scientific support to the establishment and validation of agrometeorological services. SciTopics. Research summaries by experts. Elsevier.
  • Stigter Kees (Ed., 2010) Applied Agrometeorology. Springer, Heidelberg/Berlin/New York, xxxviii + 1101 pp.
  • Stigter CJ (2011) Agrometeorological services: reaching all farmers with operational information products in new educational commitments. CAgM Report 104, WMO, Geneva, 37 pp.
  • Stigter CJ, Sivakumar MVK, Rijks DA (2000) Agrometeorology in the 21st Century: Workshop Summary and Recommendations on Needs and Perspectives. Agric For Meteorol 103:209-227
  • Winarto YT, Stigter CJ (Eds., 2011) Agrometeorological Learning: Coping Better with Climate Change. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, Saarbrucken, 250 pp.
  • WMO (2010) Guidelines for Agricultural Meteorological Practices (GAMP), 2010 Edition (in house edited version of Stigter CJ (Ed., 2007b).
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