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The History of Capacity Building through Roving Seminars on Agro-meteorology/-climatology in Africa, Asia and Latin America by “Agromet Vision”. II. Agrometeorology and Sustainable Development

Last modified May 07, 2015 15:54

C. (Kees) J. Stigter, Group Agrometeorology, Department of Soil, Crop and Climate Sciences, University of the Free State (UFS), Faculty of Agriculture, Agriculture Building, Campus UFS, 9301 Bloemfontein, South Africa and Cluster Response Farming and Climate Change, Department of Anthropology University of Indonesia (UI), Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Fl.6/Building H - Selo Soemardjan Room, campus UI,16424 Depok/Indonesia and Agromet Vision, Groenestraat 13, 5314AJ Bruchem/The Netherlands E-mail: cjstigter@usa.net

Introduction

My one man consultancy bureau “Agromet Vision” (presently The Netherlands, Indonesia, Africa) offers Roving Seminars of two to five days for university staff, students in agriculture, professional agrometeorologists and extension intermediaries since 2005, with local evaluations.

History (latest update of information sent to parties interested in my Roving Seminars, based on Stigter, 2006a)

Occasional early missions to Madagascar (4 months, 1969) and Algeria (2 weeks, 1972) apart, I worked in Africa for 40 years (1975 – 2015) in 20 countries and in Asia for 5 respectively 18 years (1988 – 1993; 1997 – 2015) in 10 countries. I worked occasionally in Latin America, in 5 countries. From the beginning I had the farmers, their (local) governments and the knowledge already locally available as my core interests (Stigter, 1982). This led to a working document submitted to the VIIIth Session of CAgM (Technical Commission for Agricultural Meteorology of the World Meteorological Organization) in Geneva (WMO, 1983). Proposed by the late Dr. Baier, then immediate past president of CAgM, and seconded by the late Dr. Gerbier, then president of CAgM, this resulted in the establishment of a Working Group that reported to the IXth Session of CAgM in Madrid (Stigter, 1988).

Subsequently I headed Joint Rapporteurs on Low External Input Agriculture nominated in Madrid that reported to the Xth Session of CAgM in Florence (Stigter et al., 1992). The reported results and problems were also based on my own African research that was more and more carried out within the actual livelihood of farmers, to create direct solutions to farmers’ problems (Mungai et al., 1996). The updated contemporary history of this new approach to applied agrometeorology, that my associates and I practiced and theoretically further developed, has earlier been deposited on the INSAM website (Stigter, 2006a).

This narrates how agrometeorological services got a new perspective between the two CAgM sessions in Accra (Ghana, in 1999) and Ljubljana (Slovenia, in 2002), culminating in the conceptual and diagnostic framework officially presented for the first time in 2002 in Ljubljana (Stigter et al., 2005a) and then at several occasions after that event. This was among others done in 2002 in the Gambia (Stigter, 2004a), in 2003 in Washington (Stigter, 2003), in 2004 in Fukuoka (Stigter, 2005) and Manila (Murthy and Stigter, 2005) and in a generalized form in 2005 in a farewell lecture at Wageningen University and an invited lecture in Khartoum (Stigter, 2006b).

It was also used in its original form at the second CAgM Management Group meeting in Guaruja (Brazil), to propose and defend the training of intermediaries between the agrometeorological products developed by NMHSs as well as Research Institutes/Universities and users, for client friendly transfer and assistance in use (Stigter et al., 2005b). An updated Guest Editorial in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology closes this sequence (Stigter, 2006c). In the end it became central in WMO (2010) and Stigter (2010).  The contemporary history of a new approach to applied agrometeorology was followed by proposed contents of what would become Stigter (2010), where agrometeorological services would be the starting point for dealing with applied agrometeorology (Stigter, 2006a).

Definitions and examples of agrometeorological services can be found in Stigter (2010; 2011a; 2011b; 2015) and Stigter et al. (2015). One of the conclusions in Ljubljana was that the main issues at present are how to make better use of the existing information and to disperse knowledge to the farm level (Salinger et al., 2005). It was also again concluded that agrometeorologists must play an important role in assisting farmers as well as policy makers with the development of feasible coping strategies (see also Salinger et al., 2000). This is true for nearly all countries but developing countries are particularly vulnerable.

Capacity Building

Actual progress in getting more agrometeorological services established and used in the livelihood of farmers can only be made in dissemination of these ideas and in capacity building to get agrometeorologists familiar with the existing needs.  Several approaches are possible for such capacity building. In China we followed the road of the establishment of pilot projects (Stigter et al., 2006). Training of the above already mentioned intermediaries is an additional approach to be advocated (Stigter et al., 2005b). Roving seminars would again be another attempt. In fact combining these approaches is the real road to making things happening.

It should be noted that agrometeorology was related to sustainability and sustainable development for the first time in this second Roving Seminar. However, next to this core the focus now became ”Agrometeorological services to prepare farmers for climate extremes and climate use” with the preparation of farmers as the  central theme to reach sustainability. I was saying as an introduction that my Roving Seminars are on concepts and policies. You (the audience) have been fed data all the time. Here is the context in which these data should be important. The theory and practice of agrometeorological services (in the first Roving Seminar) are now replaced by sustainable development through preparation of farmers with such services (in this second Roving Seminar). Farmers must this way become more resilient to the vagaries of weather and climate as well as the consequences of climate change.

Roving seminars

I gained experience between 1995 and 2005, through multiple participative and interactive lectures in Africa (four countries: Kenya, Nigeria, Sudan, Tanzania), Hanoi, China (more than 15 institutes throughout the country), Indonesia (8 institutes throughout the country and at one of them six times), India (8 institutes in four cities), Bangkok, Manila (presented by Dr. Murthy), and Fukuoka, as well as at several international conferences outside Asia and two WMO/CAgM Management Group meetings. This developed a feeling for the needs and possibilities for agrometeorological services and for the required policies to establish them (Stigter, 2006a; 2006c). Of course I illustrated the principles derived for the rural areas largely with my own experiences over the years and from the abundant literature my associates and I collected.

I used this experience to develop two one week courses suitable for Roving Seminars. For the first Roving Seminar, see Stigter (2015). The first report on this second educational happening can be found on the INSAM website (Asadi, 2005). The lectures given are dealt with below. The subtitle used for each presentation was “Agrometeorological services to prepare farmers for climate extremes and climate use” for reasons given above.

The Conclusions and Recommendations of each lecture are given in Appendix I. The complete list of where this Roving Seminar was held is in Appendix II. It was given, together with that first Seminar “Agrometeorological Services: Theory and Practice”, from 2005 till 2012, but it was gradually replaced by new Roving Seminars developed from 2011 till 2015 (Appendix II). Now that also this Roving Seminar has become part of the history of agrometeorology, I was advised to bring it on line with all PowerPoint presentations it contained (that will be made available on ResearchGate).

Agrometeorology and sustainable development: improving farmers’ resilience

My Roving Seminars exist of an Introduction and 8 to 9 presentations, normally given in eight half days. After each lecture there is time for questions and answers. After each presentation, breakaway groups discuss a question related to the lecture (Appendix III for this Roving Seminar). Then each group reports to a plenary meeting of the audience and a general discussion closes that half a day. The presentations and the material used for making them are given below with the references concerned. They are all based on the experience of my associates and myself in combining agrometeorology and agroclimatology approaches in preparing farmers for environmental resilience and solving farmers’ problems of sustainable development with agrometeorological and agroclimatological components. This Roving Seminar started with Jared Diamond’s observations that five factors explain collapse of societies (Diamond, 2005):

  1. human damage to the environment
  2. climate change
  3. enemies
  4. changes in trade relations
  5. political, economical and social responses to the developments mentioned above.

 

This Roving Seminar worked mainly on points (i) and (ii) and on point (v) in these two contexts.

Presentation 1: Agrometeorological services to prepare farmers for climate extremes and climate use. Introduction to the approach. Several times updated. A paper was published in Brazil (Stigter, 2007a) that was partly based on this introduction.

Presentation 2: Agrometeorological services to prepare farmers for climate extremes and climate use. Part 1. What is sustainable development? Specially written introduction to the core subject for this course. 1.1 What is sustainable development? 1.2 Role of agricultural meteorology? 1.3 What about the role of research? 1.4 Can development be sustainable when the climate is not sustainable? These questions and answers were again based on Stigter (2007a). Other parts on Stigter (2007b) and regularly updated.

Presentation 3: Agrometeorological services to prepare farmers for climate extremes and climate use. Part 2. The role of agricultural research in establishing agromet services. This was an elaborate and updated extension written for this course based on Stigter (2005; 2007c; 2008a) and Murthy and Stigter (2005). For each of the classes of agrometeorological services distinguished, examples are discussed to show the difference between (i) guided research on action support systems to mitigate impacts of disasters (our good intentions of applied agrometeorology) and (ii) guided research on agrometeorological services supporting actions of producers and other decision makers (that are necessary in the new approach).

Presentation 4: Agrometeorological services to prepare farmers for climate extremes and climate use. Part 3. Examples of agrometeorological services in the literature. For this lecture we have collected and extensively discussed the following examples of agrometeorological services from the literature:

•         Chambers, Microenvironments unobserved (Chambers 1990);

•         examples from the recent 2004/2005 INSAM contest (Portugal, Cuba);

•         other examples from Europe and close to Europe (Netherlands, Israel);

•         examples from Guangdong Province and Ningxia Autonomous Region (China);

•         other examples from Asia (India);

•         examples from Africa (Mali, Ethiopia, Sudan (among which winners from the second (2006) INSAM contest);

 

The above items were intensively discussed as agrometeorological services (climate services for agriculture) in Stigter (2010).

 

•         Winarto et al (2008; 2010), Climate Field Schools in Indonesia, improved “response farming” for climate change, agrometeorological learning.

 

An extended abstract of three pages based on parts of this lecture can be found in Stigter (2006d).The last two examples, from Sudan, were from TTMI-Research. They were based on Bakheit et al (2001), Abdalla et al (2002), Stigter et al. (2002; 2003) and Bakheit and Stigter (2004).

Presentation 5: Agrometeorological services to prepare farmers for climate extremes and climate use. Part 4. Preparation of farmers for climate extremes and climate use. This lecture was based on Stigter (2006e; 2006f; 2008b), Rathore and Stigter (2007) and Stigter et al (2007).

 

Presentation 6: Agrometeorological services to prepare farmers for climate extremes and climate use. Part 5. Actual needs of farming systems and their farmers: some case studies. This lecture was based on Rathore and Stigter (2007), Stigter et al (2007) and Stigter (2008c).

 

Presentation 7: Agrometeorological services to prepare farmers for climate extremes and climate use. Part 6. The role of civil servants and NGOs in preparing farmers. For this paper Stigter with Rathore (2008) was used. This was the first of three papers originally specially written (in Beijing in October 2005) for presentation after local lectures in a Workshop. This has been updated and extended in Bloemfontein in March 2008. The same applies to the following two presentations.   

Presentation 8: Agrometeorological services to prepare farmers for climate extremes and climate use. Part 7. Training of agromet intermediaries to prepare farmers as end users.  For this paper Stigter (2009a; 2009b) were used.

 

Presentation 9: Agrometeorological services to prepare farmers for climate extremes and climate use. Part 8. Conflicts of interests in a bottom-up approach in agrometeorology. Here Al-Amin et al (2005; 2006) were used.

 

Of course the material of papers published after 2005 was already available from the theses and other research reports from which they were derived in and before 2005 but the presentations were updated after 2005.

The conclusion of the early Roving Seminars has been that these educational commitments were suitable to get people aware of the necessities of further establishment and use of climate services for agriculture, making use of policy trends of improved services climates in rural areas for which funds appear to become available, at least in some countries. Particularly due to the events related to climate change, this Seminar had relevancy to all emerging countries (Stigter et al., 2007; Stigter, 2008a; 2010; 2011a). 

 

References

  1. Abdalla, A.T., Stigter, C.J., Bakheit, N.I., Gough, M.C., Mohamed, H.A., Mohammed, A.E. and Ahmed, M.A. (2002) Traditional underground grain storage in clay soils in Sudan improved by recent innovations. Tropicultura, 20, pp. 170–175.
  2. Al-Amin, N.K.N., Stigter, K. (C.J.), Elagab, M.A.M., Hussein, M. B. (2005) Combating desert encroachment by guiding people, wind and sand. Journal of Agricultural Meteorology (Japan), 60, pp. 349–352.
  3. Al-Amin, N.K.N., Stigter, C.J., Mohammed, A.E. (2006) Establishment of trees for sand settlement in a completely desertified environment. Arid Land Research and Management, 20 (4), pp. 309-327.
  4. Asadi, M. (2005) Agrometeorology and Sustainable Development.
  5. http://www.agrometeorology.org/news/news-highlights/agrometeorology-and-sustainable-development/
  6. Bakheit, N.I., Stigter, K. (2004) Improved matmuras: effective but underutilized.  In Low External Input and Sustainable Agriculture (LEISA) Magazine, 20 (3), p. 14.
  7. Bakheit, N.I., Stigter, K., Abdalla, A.T. (2001) Underground storage of sorghum as a banking alternative. Low External Input and Sustainable Agriculture (ILEIA Newsletter), 17 (1), p. 13.
  8. Chambers, R. (1990) Microenvironments unobserved. Gatekeeper Series 22, IIED, London, England.
  9. Diamond, J.M. (2005) Collapse – how societies choose to fail or to survive. Viking Press, New York, USA, 592 pp.
  10. Mungai, D.N., Stigter, C.J., Ng'ang'a, J.K., Coulson, C. (1996) New approach in research education to solve problems of dryland farming in Africa. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation 10, pp. 169-177.
  11. Murthy, V.R.K., Stigter, C.J. (2005) Operational agrometeorological services for extension needs and the supportive role of agricultural research. Pp. 199-208 in: Strengthening Operational Agrometeorological Services at the National Level, Proceedings of a Regional Meeting, Manila, Philippines. AGM-9, WMO/TD-No. 1277, WMO. Geneva. Also on-line on the WMO/CAgM website.
  12. http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/wcp/agm/publications/images/agm9cover.jpg
  13. Rathore, L.S., Stigter, C.J. (2007) Challenges to coping strategies with agrometeorological risks and uncertainties - Regional Perspectives: Asia. In: Sivakumar, M.V.K., Motha, R. (Eds.). Managing weather and climate risks in agriculture. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany.
  14. Salinger, M.J., Stigter, C.J., Das, H.P. (2000) Agrometeorological adaptation strategies to increasing climate variability and climate change. In: M.V.K. Sivakumar, C.J. Stigter & D.A. Rijks (Eds.), Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (Special Issue) 103, 167-184.
  15. Salinger, M.J., Sivakumar M.V.K., Motha, R. P. (Eds.) (2005) Reducing vulnerability of agriculture and forestry to climate variability and climate change. Climatic Change (Special Issue) 70, 362 pp.
  16. Stigter, C.J. (1982) Environmental physics, agricultural research and development. Inaugural Lecture on having been nominated Full Professor of Physics (in agriculture) in 1978. Inaugural Lecture Series No. 30, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 54 pp.
  17. Stigter, C.J. (1988) Microclimate management and manipulation in traditional farming. CAgM Report Nr. 25, WMO/TD-No. 228. WMO, Geneva, 20 pp. + 6 Appendices.
  18. Stigter, C.J. (1999) The future of agrometeorology: perspectives in science and services. WMO-Bulletin, 48, 353-359.
  19. Stigter, C.J. (2003) Support systems in policy making for agrometeorological services: bringing the work of CAgM OPAGs, ICTs and ETs in a diagnostic and conceptual framework for action support. Policy paper for the first meeting of the Management Group of CAgM in Washington DC. WMO, Geneva. INSAM website. 
  20. Stigter, C.J. (2005) Building stones of agrometeorological services: adaptation strategies based on farmer innovations, functionally selected contemporary science and understanding of prevailing policy environments. Opening key note lecture at the FPEC Symposium, Fukuoka, Japan. Journal of Agricultural Meteorology (Japan), 60, pp. 525–528.
  21. Stigter, C.J. (2006a) A contemporary history of a new approach to applied agrometeorology. INSAM website. http://www.agrometeorology.org/topics/history-of-agrometeorology/a-contemporary-history-of-a-new-approach-to-applied-agrometeorology
  22. Stigter, C.J. (2006b) No policies, no cure: why the marginal farmers that need our agrometeorological support most are nowhere getting it. Farewell lecture Wageningen University, 14 April 2005. In a modified form (as presented at the Institute for Studies of the Future in Khartoum on 23 April 2005) under the title “Scientific research in Africa in the 21st century, in need of a change of approach”. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 1, pp. 4-8.
  23. Stigter, C.J. (2006c) From basic agrometeorological science to agrometeorological services and information for agricultural decision makers: a simple conceptual and diagnostic framework. Appeared as a guest editorial in 2007 in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 142, pp. 91 – 95.
  24. Stigter, K. (2006d) Agrometeorological services in various parts of the world, under conditions of a changing climate. Austin Bourke Memorial Lecture presented in the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, in the evening of 2 March.
  25. http://www.agrometeorology.org/topics/accounts-of-operational-agrometeorology/agrometeorological-services-in-various-part-of-the-world-under-conditions-of-a-changing-climate/
  26. Stigter, K. (2006e) Apropos the floods and landslides on Java: Coping with disasters. http://www.agrometeorology.org/topics/agromet-market-place/apropos-the-floods-and-landslides-on-java-coping-with-disasters/
  27. Stigter, K. (2006f) Even the present situation in Aceh/Sumatra, Indonesia, bears similarity with problems encountered with introduction of agrometeorological services: another story of parallels. http://www.agrometeorology.org/topics/agromet-market-place/even-the-present-situation-in-aceh-sumatra-indonesia-bears-similarity-with-problems-encountered-with-introduction-of-agrometeorological-services-another-story-of-parallels/
  28. Stigter, K. (2007a) Agrometeorological services to prepare farmers for climate extremes and climate use. Paper presented under “Agrometeorology and Sustainable Development” at the XVth Congress of the Brazilian Society for Agrometeorology, Aracaju, Brazil, July. Invited paper. Revista Brasileira de Agrometeorologia, 15, pp. 202-207.
  29. Stigter, K. (2007b) Coping with climate risk in agriculture needs farmer oriented research and extension policies. Invited paper presented under “Socialization of the contents of agrometeorology in Latin America” as the closure lecture on 30 November 2007 at the “First Venezuelan Congress of Agrometeorology” and the “Fifth Latin American Meeting on Agrometeorology”, concurrently held in Maracay, Venezuela. Scientia Agricola (Piracicaba, Brazil), 65 (special issue) [online]: pp. 108-115.
  30. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/sa/v65nspe/a16v65nsp.pdf
  31. Stigter, C.J. (2007c) (Guest Editorial). From basic agrometeorological science to agrometeorological services and information for agricultural decision makers: a simple conceptual and diagnostic framework. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 142, pp. 91-95.
  32. Stigter, C.J. (2008a) Agrometeorology from science to extension: Assessment of needs and provision of services. A Review. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 126, pp 153-157.
  33. Stigter, K. (2008b) Panta rhei: changes in agrometeorological adaptation strategies to climate change. Abstract of a presentation at the Combined Congress, Grahamstown, South Africa, January.
  34. Stigter, K. (2008c) Operational agrometeorology: problems and perspectives. Invited contribution (Souvenir Paper) to a Souvenir Booklet for an International Meeting on Agrometeorology and Food Security. CRIDA, Hyderabad, India.
  35. Stigter C.J. (2009a) Agricultural meteorology over the years, new priorities and consequences for curricula. Invited keynote paper in: Guidelines for curricula in agricultural meteorology. Supplement No. 2 to “Guidelines for the education and training of personnel in meteorology and operational hydrology”, Vol. 1, WMO 258, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 11-16.
  36. Stigter, C.J. (2009b) Training intermediaries. Invited sections in: Guidelines for curricula in agricultural meteorology. Supplement No. 2 to “Guidelines for the education and training of personnel in meteorology and operational hydrology”, Vol. 1, WMO 258, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 25-27 and pp. 43-44.
  37. Stigter, K. (Ed.) (2010) Applied Agrometeorology. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York etc., xxxviii + 1101 pp.
  38. Stigter, C.J. (2011a) Agrometeorological services: Reaching all farmers with operational information products in new educational commitments. CAgM Report 104, WMO, Geneva, 37 pp.
  39. Stigter, C.J. (K.) (2011b). Rural response to climate change in poor countries: Ethics, policies and scientific support systems in their agricultural environment. Chapter 5 in: Tom Sauer and John Norman (Eds.), Sustaining soil productivity in response to global climate change – Science, policy and ethics. OECD Policy Workshop, 29 June 2009 at the University of Madison, Wisconsin. Wiley & Sons Inc., Ames (Iowa, USA) and Chichester (UK), pp. 67- 77.
  40. Stigter, C.J. (Ed.) with contributions from Karing, P.H., Stigter, C.J., Wanlong Chen, Wilken, G.C. (1992) Application of microclimate management and manipulation techniques in low external input agriculture. CAgM Report No. 43, WMO/TD-No. 499, WMO, Geneva, 192 pp.
  41. Stigter, K. with Rathore, L.S. (2008) How to organize coping with crop disease risks of farmers in poor countries. Paper presented at the Asian Pacific Network Review and Planning Workshop in Dhaka for the APN Project “Climate and Crop Disease Risk Management: an International Initiative in the Asia-Pacific Region” (February 11-14). http://www.agrometeorology.org/topics/needs-for-agrometeorological-solutions-to-farming-problems/how-to-organize-coping-with-crop-disease-risck-of-farmers-in-poor-countries/, accessed on 18 June 2014.
  42. Stigter, C.J., Mohammed, A.E., Al-Amin, N.K.N., Onyewotu, L.O.Z., Oteng'i, S.B.B., Kainkwa, R.M.R. (2002) Agroforestry solutions to some African wind problems. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 90, pp. 1101–1114.
  43. Stigter, C.J., Al-Amin, N.K.N., Oteng’i, S.B.B., Kainkwa, R.M.R., Onyewotu, L.O.Z. (2003) Scattered trees and wind protection under African conditions. In: Ruck, B., Kottmeier, C., Mattheck, C., Quine, C., Wilhelm G. (Eds.), Wind Effects on Trees. University of Karlsruhe, Germany.
  44. Stigter, C.J., Zheng Dawei, Onyewotu, L.O.Z., Mei Xurong (2005a) Using traditional methods and indigenous technologies for coping with climate variability. Climatic Change, 70, pp. 255-271.
  45. Stigter, K. (Ed.), with contributions from Barrie, I., Chan, A., Gommes, R., Lomas, J., Milford, J., Ravelo, A., Stigter, K., Walker, S., Wang, S., Weiss, A. (2005b) Support systems in policy making for agrometeorological services: The role of intermediaries. http://www.agrometeorology.org/files-folder/repository/support_system.pdf
  46. Stigter, C.J., Oluwasemire, K.O., Onyewotu, L.O.Z. Oteng'i, S.B.B., Kinama, J.M., Zheng Dawei, Zhao Caizia, Zhang Yingcui, Murthy, V.R.K., Rashidi, A.G.M., Abdalla, A.T., Al-amin, Nawal K.N., Bakheit, N.I. (2006) Agrometeorological services making a difference for poor farmers. II. How it can be done. Paper prepared for presentation at the National Policy Workshop "Meeting Nigeria's Food Security and Agricultural Export Target - the Weather Factor", Abuja, Nigeria, 10 pp.
  47. Stigter, C.J., Tan Ying, Das, H.P., Zheng Dawei, Rivero Vega, R.E., Van Viet, Nguyen, Bakheit, N.I., Abdullahi, Y.M. (2007) Complying with farmers’ conditions and needs using new weather and climate information approaches and technologies. In: Sivakumar, M.V.K., Motha, R. (Eds), Managing Weather and Climate Risks in Agriculture. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp. 171-190.
  48. Stigter, H., Zheng Dawei, Liu Jing, Li Chunqian, Dominguez-Hurtado, I.M., Mohammed, A.E., Abdalla, A.T., Bakheit, N.I., Al-Amin, N.K.N., Wei Yurong and Kinama, J.M., 2015. Meeting farmers’ needs for agrometeorological services: a review with case studies. Part IV: Historical case studies. Italian Journal of Agrometeorology, 1/2015: in press.
  49. WMO (1983) Microclimate management and manipulation in traditional farming. Document 15, item “Land use and agricultural management systems under severe climatic conditions”. Official Report of the VIIIth session of CAgM in Geneva, WMO, Geneva.
  50. WMO (with Kees Stigter as Editor-in-Chief) (2010) Guide to Agricultural Meteorological Practices, WMO, 134. http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/wcp/agm/gamp/gamp_en.php

 

Appendix I

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

From Presentation 1: Agrometeorological services to prepare farmers for climate extremes and climate use. Introduction to the approach.

Conclusions

•  Analyses of existing priority problems must be made for the current farming systems, with the farmers concerned themselves advising on their needs.

•  Provincial/regional agrometeorologists are as important as the means they have to actually serve the farmers with planning and information.

•   All local research undertakings must intentionally be related to these means, needs and problems.

Recommendations

•  Dialogues with farmers, of each farming system distinguished in the region, are the very beginning of preparing for agrometeorological services.

•  For various groups involved, income levels must be considered as well as occupation, where applicable.

• An inventory of best practices for natural risk reduction, that have actually made a difference in the livelihood of farmers, should be established.

 

From Presentation 2: Agrometeorological services to prepare farmers for climate extremes and climate use. Part 1. What is sustainable development?

Conclusions

• Means of communication and education are part of sustainable development.

• To a large extent only richer farmers are able to make use of whatever support systems are organized while the majority of marginal farmers are left in misery.

• Developing a response farming approach with forecasting capabilities that change and improve in the course of time, is a condition for sustainable development.

Recommendations

• Use the expression “agrometeorological services to prepare farmers for climate extremes and climate use” because it is closest to reality.

•  New or adapted preparedness strategies have to be developed as responses to increasing climate variability, but once response farming is aimed at, this remains the same approach but to more varying conditions.

•  Society as a whole must want to focus on rural as well as industrial development. The latter, however, has to be, after all, of a completely new and different approach.

 

From Presentation 3: Agrometeorological services to prepare farmers for climate extremes and climate use. Part 2. The role of agricultural research in establishing agromet services.

Conclusions

• We need globalization as to the availability of methods, tools of research, but we need localization as to strategies, adaptation of research to local realities, problem identification and local innovations available.

•         Experiences show that for the development of agrometeorological services most chances for success appear to be in the small scale/long term problem (disasters and solutions) category.

•         It is well illustrated by all comparisons for the various classes of agrometeorological services distinguished that the E1 research support approach differs substantially and essentially from the E2 research support approach. [see the introduction to Question 2 in Appendix III below for an explanation of the symbols E1 and E2]

Recommendations

• The E2 guidance should be used in developing countries and countries in transition because it is bottom up and starts with farmers’ needs, conditions and priority problems.

• Research related to agrometeorological services should mainly take place in the A-domain, with essential support from the right mix in the B-domain that itself can be very well supported by the C-domain, but the direction is from the A-domain to the C-domain and back while carrying out the E2 guidance. [see the introduction to Question 2 in Appendix III below for an explanation of the symbols used]

 

From Presentation 4: Agrometeorological services to prepare farmers for climate extremes and climate use. Part 3. Examples of agrometeorological services in the literature.

Conclusions

• We have to conclude from the INSAM contest that few agrometeorological services do exist in third world countries & countries in transition, that were set up and recognized as such.

•  However, language may be a serious problem for filling our contest forms (e.g. China).

• Lessons learned confirm that agrometeorological services are much more easily articulated and absorbed by other decision makers than by most farmers concerned.

•  Examples from China show that bottlenecks for good agrometeorological services can also be in science used.

Recommendations

• The essential lessons learned in India, China and Africa should be taken very seriously by all involved in developing agrometeorological services for the poorest farmers.

• The African case studies should be seen as confirmations that traditional adaptation strategies can be insufficient or may have been degraded, that contemporary science is very often available on-shelf and that inappropriate policy environments are often preventing the right preliminary decisions as well as dissemination of locally obtained successes.

 

From Presentation 5: Agrometeorological services to prepare farmers for climate extremes and climate use. Part 4. Examples of agrometeorological services in the literature.

Conclusions

• Farming systems with less flexibility are better off if they prepare themselves for disasters due to weather and climate extremes by measures that mitigate their impacts beforehand.

• Making use of climate very often also demands preparative measures against limiting factors that can be taken beforehand and that permanently improve the climate for crop growth and acceptable yields, also under low external input conditions.

Recommendations

• There is an enormous parallel between problems
in getting services

(i) introduced in agrometeorology,

 

(ii)  applied in disaster risk reduction,


and

(iii) organized in rehabilitation.

• Preparedness strategies for reduction of effects of disasters demand another form of support from the local research community, better geared to farmers’ needs and conditions than products offered from scientific and technological developments based on situations external to the societies concerned.

 

From Presentation 6: Agrometeorological services to prepare farmers for climate extremes and climate use. Part 5. Actual needs of farming systems and their farmers: some case studies.

Conclusions

• The consequences of poverty and vulnerability are not clearly understood nor are the possibilities within farmers’ existence.

• For other developing countries than China a similar farmer differentiation will definitely be valid, but the stories that belong to each of their income groups and rural occupations will differ and the implications also.

Recommendations

•         After improving, adapting and focusing rural information and education systems, information and communication technologies (ICTs) could play very important roles in such capacity building and services.

•         The five “Aceh/Sumatra” issues discussed earlier should guide us. Such studies as made in China but now specifically with respect to agrometeorological services would help us even more in getting the right picture, and in being able to give the right guidance for important differentiation and upscaling operations.

 

From Presentation 7: Agrometeorological services to prepare farmers for climate extremes and climate use. Part 6. The role of civil servants and NGOs in preparing farmers.

Conclusions

l  NGOs are very popular in western countries (unions, non-profit organizations) but also for example in Bangladesh, India and Sri Lanka (grassroot movements).

l  For actual agrometeorological services you also need applied scientists to develop them, and extension intermediaries with sufficient basic knowledge for trying them out with farmers in the field.

l  Development of community based (preparedness and mitigation)  strategies are particularly encouraged for governments in disaster risk reduction. This is confirmed by the lessons illustrated.

Recommendations

l  Government and NGOs should work complementary. Governments must be able to leave certain interests to those concerned, organized in/by NGOs.

l  In each NMHS a Services Department should have a section “Agromet Services” that is specialized to “promote” agrometeorological services, also to poorer farmers. The lessons learned should be followed fully or partially by these weather services and by the research institutes and universities.

l  Civil servants at NMHSs can make weather “advisory” products of their organization more “client friendly”. Again the same applies to research institutes and universities.

 

From Presentation 8: Agrometeorological services to prepare farmers for climate extremes and climate use. Part 7. Training of agromet intermediaries to prepare farmers as end users.

Conclusions

•         The proven urgent need for better on-farm preparedness for environmental calamities is equivalent to a revival of response farming.

•         In non-industrialized countries, training of intermediaries
would go a long way in solving problems for various groups of all but the richest and best educated farmers. Training programs at all levels must therefore be adapted to national and regional needs. The curricula given make this attempt.

•         The education and in service training of agrometeorological extension intermediaries is an essential part of the new approach, that appears necessary in education, training and extension in agricultural meteorology.

Recommendations

•         It would help if we created a database of sound and dependable supportive (“derived operational”) research applications “that work with the neighbors”.

•         CAgM and INSAM should support attempts to strengthen policies as a building block in the B-domain. This should aim at filling gaps between the providers of agrometeorological products and actual agrometeorological services in the livelihood of farmers.

•         Improved agricultural management operations, on a large scale, would indeed be one of the most practical contributions to sustainable development.

From Presentation 9: Agrometeorological services to prepare farmers for climate extremes and climate use. Part 8. Conflicts of interests in a bottom-up approach in agrometeorology.

Conclusions        

•         The details of the examples from Sudan illustrate that the use of science (agrometeorology) is not neutral but a matter of policies that can lead to conflicts.

•         What is a disaster in one place may be a blessing elsewhere (Eucalyptus, Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora).

•         In developing countries agrometeorology means immediate development of design rules and validation & extension with participation of people concerned.

Recommendations

•         Rehabilitation of the sand invaded areas in Sudan with desert vegetation efficiently reducing wind speed close to the ground, this way settling sand, appears the best solution in a second front against desert encroachment.

•         Bottom up we have to pay attention to local innovations and understand the agro-meteorological components scientifically, often by quantification, to make the most effective designs.

                                                                                   

Appendix II

LIST OF ROVING SEMINARS BY PROF. KEES STIGTER (2005 – 2015)

Nr. 1: Agrometeorological Services, Theory and Practice

Nr. 2: Agrometeorology and Sustainable Developmen

Nr. 3: Reaching farmers in a changing climate

Nr. 4: Extension agrometeorology (developed for Iran)

Nr. 5: What climate change means for farmers in Africa (developed for Africa)

Nr. 6: Agroforestry and climate change      

 

      

Total now: 37, of which four trials (2006, 2007, 2011, 2015), in 13 countries.

 

 

Appendix III

 

QUESTIONS FOR THE DISCUSSION GROUPS OF COURSE 2, AGROMETEOROLOGY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Intro + Lecture 1 (Presentations 1 and 2)

Some of the conclusions were:

•         Analyses of existing priority problems must be made for the current farming systems, with the farmers concerned themselves advising on their needs;

 

•         Provincial/regional agrometeorologists are as important as the means they have to actually serve the farmers with planning and information;

 

•         New or adapted preparedness strategies have to be developed as responses to increasing climate variability, but once response farming is aimed at, this remains the same approach but to more varying conditions;

 

•         All local research undertakings must intentionally be related to these means, needs and problems.

 

Question 1

Starting with the last issue, can you agree on this?

If so, how would you organize the link between the three other points and agrometeorological research to have this rigorously established?

 

 

Lecture 2 (Presentation 3)

A    <-------|------->      B     <------|------->    C
                  |                                   |                                                   
                  |                                   |                                                                                                                                                     
                 E2                               E1

E1 = Agrometeorological Action Support Systems on Mitigating Impacts of Disasters

E2 = Agrometeorological Services Supporting Actions of Producers

Domain A = Sustainable livelihood systems

Domain B = Local adaptive strategies (knowledge pools based on traditional knowledge and indigenous technologies)
 + Contemporary knowledge pools (based on science and technology)
 + Appropriate policy environments (based on social concerns and environmental considerations, scientifically supported and operating through the market where appropriate)

Domain C = Support systems to agrometeorological services: data + research + education/ training/extension + policies

Research related to agrometeorological services should mainly take place in the A-domain, with essential support from the right mix in the B-domain that itself can be very well supported by the C-domain, but the direction is from the A-domain to the C-domain and back while carrying out the E2 guidance.

Experiences show that for the development of agrometeorological services most chances for success appear to be in the small scale/long term problem (disasters and solutions) category.

Question 2

Can you give examples of the latter in your country and how they influence the livelihood of farmers?

What agrometeorological services would we need to tackle such problems?

 

 

Lecture 3 (Presentation 4)

We have to conclude from the INSAM contests that few agrometeorological services do exist in third world countries & countries in transition, that were set up and recognized as such.

Lessons learned confirm that agrometeorological services are much more easily articulated and absorbed by other decision makers than by most farmers concerned.

Question 3

How do we use that experience in the establishment of such services?

 

 

Lecture 4 (Presentation 5)

Making use of climate very often also demands preparative measures against limiting factors that can be taken beforehand and that permanently improve the climate for crop growth and acceptable yields, also under low external input conditions.

Question 4

Do you know examples from your country?

Could they be brought into forms of agrometeorological services?

 

 

Lecture 5 (Presentation 6)

The consequences of poverty and vulnerability are not clearly understood nor are the possibilities within farmers’ existence.

Question 5

Do agrometeorologists have a task here as well?

If so, how can we play our role? If not, how will this hot issue be solved?

 

 

Lecture 6 (Presentation 7)

Civil servants at NMHSs can make weather “advisory” products of their organization more “client friendly”. Again the same applies to research institutes and universities.

Question 6

What changes do we need at NMHSs, research institutes and universities to get this going?

Would this improve your own work? How?

 

 

Lecture 7 (Presentation 8)

The education and in service training of agrometeorological extension intermediaries is an essential part of the new approach, that appears necessary in education, training and extension in agricultural meteorology.

Question 7

How can this be organized?

How would this affect your work?

 

 

Lecture 8 (Presentation 9)

The details of the examples illustrate that the use of science (agrometeorology) is not neutral but a matter of policies that can lead to conflicts.

Question 8

Do you know (other) examples from your country?

How were they solved (if they were solved)?

How may they be solved (if they were not yet solved)?

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